GENGHIS KHAN; my own words #78 The Tanguts Request Help from the Jin Dynasty


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I had completed my desire to combine the Mongolian people under one nation. However, I grew restless when, in 1207 AD, I realized there was more territory that my Mongolian people had wandered to.

I organized my people, army, and state to first prepare for war with Western Xia, or Xi Xia, which was close to the Mongolian lands. I correctly believed that the more powerful young ruler of the Jin dynasty would not come to the aid of Xi Xia.

When the Tanguts requested help from the Jin dynasty, they were refused.

Despite minor difficulties in capturing its well-defended cities, I managed to force the emperor of Xi Xia to submit to vassal status.

In 1215, I, the Glorious and Most Feared Genghis Khan, besieged, captured, and sacked the Jin capital of Zhongdu (Beijing). This forced the Jin ruler, Emperor Xuanzong, to flee his capital and establish his court south to Kaifeng, abandoning the northern half of his empire to the me.

Me, as I entered Beijing

Meanwhile, a deposed khan of the confederation that I had previously defeated and folded into my ever-growing Mongol Empire, fled west and usurped the territory of the Khan of Katay. (now known as the Western Liao).

The deposed khan’s name was Kushluk.

I bravely decided to conquer the Katay and defeat Kushluk to take him out of power. By this time my army was exhausted from ten years of continuous campaigning in China against the Western Xia and Jin dynasty. Therefore, I sent only 20,000 soldiers against Kushluk, under my younger general, “The Arrow”.

With such a small force, The Arrow was forced to change strategies and resort to inciting internal revolt among Kushluk’s supporters, leaving the Katay more vulnerable to Mongol conquest. As a result, Kushluk’s army was defeated. Kushluk fled again, but was soon hunted down by The Arrow’s army and executed.

By 1218, as a result of defeat of Katay, my Mongol Empire extended its control west finally bordering on Khwarazmia, a Muslim state that reached the Caspian Sea to the west and Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea to the south.

Khwarazmia was governed by Shah Al-Din Muhammad.


Next post;  #79    The Shah, the Ambassadors and the Silk Road



GENGHIS KHAN; my own words #77 Hujaku Receives His Reward


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Hujaku knew that if he was to overthrow the emperor he would first have to deal with me, The Great and Glorious Genghis Khan. However, he was most afraid to attack me.

So Hujaku sent someone out to do his work for him

The general to whom he gave the command was named Kan-ki.

Kan-ki went out against me but returned unsuccessful.

Hujaku was very angry with him when he came to hear his report. Perhaps the wound in his foot made him impatient and unreasonable. He declared that the cause of Kan-ki’s failure was his dilly-dallying in pursuing the enemy, which was cowardice or treachery, and, in either case, he deserved to suffer death for it. He immediately sent the emperor a report of the case, asking that the sentence of death which he had pronounced against Kan-ki might be confirmed, and that he might be authorized to put it into execution. But the emperor, knowing that Kan-ki was a courageous and faithful officer, would not consent.

The Emperor


In the meanwhile, before the emperor’s answer came back, the wrath of Hujaku had had time to cool a little. Accordingly, when he received the answer, he said to Kan-ki that he would, after all, try him once more.

“Take the command of the troops again,” said he, “and go out against the enemy, Genghis Khan. If you beat him, I will overlook your first offense and spare your life ; but if you are beaten yourself a second time, you shall die.”

So Kan-ki placed himself at the head of his detachment, and went out again to attack my Mongols. We were to the northward, and were posted upon a sandy plain. At any rate, a strong north wind began to blow at the time when the attack commenced, and blew the sand and dust into the eyes of Kan-ki’s soldiers so that they could not see, while their enemies, my Mongols, having their backs to the wind, were very little bothered. The result was that Kan-ki was repulsed with considerable loss, and was obliged to make the best of his way back to Hujaku’s quarters to save the remainder of his men. He was now desperate. Hujaku had declared that if he came back without having gained a victory he should die, and he had no doubt that the man was violent and reckless enough to keep his word. He determined not to submit.

He might as well die fighting, he thought, at the head of his troops, as to be ignobly put to death by Hujaku’s executioner. So he arranged it with his troops, who probably hated Hujaku as much as he did, that, on returning to the town, they should march in under arms, take possession of the place, surround the palace, and seize the general and make him prisoner, or kill him if he should attempt any resistance. The troops accordingly, when they arrived at the gates of the town, seized and disarmed the guards, and then marched in, brandishing their weapons, and uttering loud shouts and outcries, which excited first a feeling of astonishment and then of terror among the inhabitants. The alarm soon spread to the palace.

Indeed, the troops themselves soon reached and surrounded the palace, and began thundering at the gates to gain admission. They soon forced their way in. Hujaku, in the mean time, terrified and panic-stricken, had fled from the palace into the gardens, in hopes to make his escape by the garden walls. The soldiers pursued him. In his excitement and agitation he leaped down from a wall too high for such a descent, and, in his fall, broke his leg. He lay writhing helplessly on the ground when the soldiers came up. They were wild and furious with the excitement of pursuit, and they killed him with their spears where he lay.

Kan-ki took the head of his old enemy and carried it to the capital, with the intention of offering it to the emperor, and also of surrendering himself to the officers of justice, in order, as he said, that he might be put to death for the crime of which he had been guilty in heading a military revolt- and killing his superior officer. By all the laws of war this was a most heinous and a wholly unpardonable offense.

But the emperor was heartily glad that the turbulent and unmanageable old general was put out of the way, for a man so unprincipled, so ambitious, and so reckless as Hujaku was is always an object of aversion and terror to all who have any thing to do With him. The emperor accordingly issued a proclamation, in which he declared that Hujaku had been justly put to death in punishment for many crimes which he had committed, and soon afterward he appointed Kan-ki commander-in-chief of the forces in his stead.


Genghis done fishing and is in the Yurt

Now that I am back from fishing I must share some additional information

Some of my story has been passed down through oral stories. Other parts have been gleaned from documented history. I cannot vouch for the entire story. The reason is because various generations of our civilization have left the story for Jacob Abbott and others to discover.


And so Jacob wrote my story for me. 

History and storytelling is much the same thing.
Enough about Jacob Abbott.

There is another person who helped carry the story forward.

Her name is Vikie  Pedia. She has agreed to help me tell you my story from this point forward.

The remainder of my story is therefore ghost written by Vikie Pedia.

From the name, I assume she must be Italian or Greek; so many vowels, so few consonants.


During my 1206 political rise, the Mongol Empire created by I, The Great and Glorious Genghis Khan (and my allies) shared our western borders with the Western Xia dynasty of the Tanguts. To the east and south was the Jin dynasty, founded by the Manchurian Jurchens, who ruled northern China as well as being the traditional overlords of the Mongolian tribes for centuries.

Remember those names; The Jin Dynasty of the Jurchens and the Xia Dynasty of the Tanguts. 

There will be a quiz on this later!

Battle between Mongol warriors and the Chinese.



Next post;  #78    The Tanguts Request Help from the Jin Dynasty


GENGHIS KHAN; my own words #76 Genghis Goes Fishing


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Genghis Khan has left the Yurt

Gone fishing for a week


Next post;  #77    Hujaku Receives Karma


GENGHIS KHAN; my own words #75 The Death of China’s Emperor; Yong-tsi


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At length the animosity proceeded to such an extreme that Hujaku resolved to depose the emperor, who seemed inclined rather to take part against him, and also to assassinate all the chiefs of the opposite party, and then finally to put the emperor to death, and cause himself to be proclaimed as emperor.

In order to prepare the way for the execution of this scheme, he originally planned to act vigorously against me and my Mongols, but allowed us to advance farther and farther into China. This, of course, increased the general discontent and excitement, and prepared the way for the revolt which Hujaku was plotting.

The time for action arrived.

Hujaku suddenly appeared at the head of a large force at the gates of the capital, and gave the alarm that the Mongols were coming. He pressed forward into the city to the palace, and gave the alarm there. At the same time, files of soldiers, whom he had ordered to this service, went to all parts of the city, arresting and putting to death all the leaders of the party opposed to him, under pretense that he had discovered a plot or conspiracy in which they were engaged to betray the city to the enemy. The excitement and confusion which was produced by this charge, and by the alarm occasioned by the supposed coming of the Mongols, so paralyzed the authorities of the town that nobody resisted Hujaku, or attempted to save the persons whom he arrested. Some of them he caused to be killed on the spot. Others he shut up in prison. Finding himself thus undisputed master of the city, he next took possession of the palace, seized the emperor, deposed him from his office, and shut him up in a dungeon. Soon afterward he put him to death.


Yong-tsi faction murdered

This was the end of Yong-tsi ; but Hujaku did not succeed, after all, in his design of causing himself to be proclaimed emperor in his stead. He found that there would be very great opposition to this, and so he gave up this part of his plan, and finally raised a certain prince of the royal family to the throne, while he retained his office of commander-in-chief of the forces.


Having thus, as he thought, effectually destroyed the influence and power of his enemies at the capital, he put himself once more at the head of his troops, and went forth to meet me, The Most Glorious Warrior Genghis Khan. Some accident happened to Hujaku about this time by which his foot was hurt, so that he was, in some degree, disabled, but still he went on. At last, he met the vanguard of my army at a place where they were attempting to cross a river by a bridge. Hujaku determined immediately to attack them.


The state of his foot was such that he could not walk nor even mount a horse, but he caused himself to be put upon a sort of cart, and was by this means carried into the battle. The Mongols were completely defeated and driven back. Perhaps this was because I, The Great Genghis Khan, was not there to command them. I was at some distance in the rear with the main body of the army. Hujaku was very desirous of following up his victory by pursuing and attacking the Mongol vanguard the next day. He could not, however, do this personally, for, on account of the excitement and exposure which he had endured in the battle, and the rough movements and joltings which, notwithstanding all his care, he had to bear in being conveyed to and fro abont the field, his foot grew much worse. Inflammation set in during the night, and the next day the wound opened; so he was obliged to give up the idea of going out himself against me, the glorious enemy.



Well – that is the story ‘according to Hujaku’, — personally – I think Hujaku lacked the stomach for a battle against me.


And so Hujaku sent general Kan-ki instead.


Next post;  #76    Genghis Goes Fishing


GENGHIS KHAN; my own words #74 Genghis Khan Wounded


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I obtained access to the interior of the Chinese dominions, and Yong-tsi and his great general Hujaku became seriously alarmed. At length, after various excursions and counter-excursionss, I learned that Hujaku was encamped with the whole of his army in a very strong position at the foot of a mountain, and I decided to proceed forward and attack him. I did so; and the result of the battle was that Hujaku was beaten and was forced to retreat.


He retired to a great fortified town, and therefore I followed him and laid siege to the town.

Hujaku, finding himself in imminent danger, fled; and I was on the point of taking the town, when I was suddenly hindered in my career by being wounded severely by an arrow which was shot at me from the wall. The wound was so severe that, while not showing my pain, I found that I could not successfully direct the operations of my army, and so I withdrew my troops and returned to my own country, to wait there until my wound healed.


In a few months I was entirely recovered, and the next year I fitted out a new expedition, and advanced again into China.

Meanwhile, (back at the ranch) Hujaku, who had been repeatedly defeated and driven back, by me – – The Grand and Glorious Genghis Khan – – Hujaku had fallen into disgrace. His rivals and enemies among the other generals of the army, and among the officers of the court, conspired against him, and represented to the emperor that he was unfit to command, and that his having failed to defend the towns and the country that had been committed to him was the result his cowardice and incapacity. In consequence of these representations Hujaku was dismissed from his command in disgrace.

This made him very angry, and he determined that he would have his revenge. There was a large faction in his favor at court, as well as a faction against him; and after a long and bitter contention, Hujaku once more prevailed, and induced the emperor to restore him to his command.


The quarrel, however, was not ended, and so, when I returned, in glory, the next year to renew the invasion, the councils of the Chinese were so distracted, and their operations so paralyzed by this feud, that I, once more in Grand and Glorious manner, gained very easy victories over them. The Chinese generals, instead of acting together in a harmonious manner against me, the common enemy, were intent only on the quarrel which they were waging against each other.


Next post;  #75    The Death of Emperor Yong-tsi


GENGHIS KHAN; my own words #72 The Great Wall of China


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In the year 1211, that is, about five years after my election as The Most Glorious Khan, I became involved in a war with the Chinese, which led, in the end, to very important consequences. The kingdom of China lay to the southward of the Mongol territories, and the frontier was defended by the famous Chinese wall, which extended from east to west, over hills and valleys. The wall was defended by towers, built here and there in commanding positions along the whole extent of it, and at certain distances there were fortified towns where powerful garrisons were stationed, and reserves of troops were held ready to be marched to different points along the wall, wherever there might be occasion for their services.


The wall continued from the great Gobi Desert to the sea, for many hundred miles


The wall was not strictly the Chinese frontier, for the territory on the outside of it to a considerable distance was held by the Chinese government, and there were many large towns and some very strong fortresses in this outlying region, all of which were held and garrisoned by Chinese troops. The inhabitants, however, of the countries outside the wall were generally of the Tartar or Mongol race. They were of a nation or tribe called the Kitan, and were somewhat inclined to rebel against the Chinese rule. In order to assist in keeping them in subjection, one of the Chinese emperors issued a decree which ordained that the governors of those provinces should place in all the large towns, and other strongholds outside the wall. This regulation greatly increased the discontent of the Kitan, and made them more inclined to rebel. Besides this, there had been for some time a growing difficulty between the Chinese government and myself. We Mongols had been for a long time accustomed to pay some sort of tribute to the Emperor of China, and many years before, while Genghis Khan, under the name of Temujin, was living at Karakorom, a subject of Vang Khan, the emperor sent a certain royal prince, named Yong-tsi, to receive what was due. While Yong-tsi was in the Mongol territory he and I had met, but we did not agree on even the slightest point.


The Chinese prince insulted me several times, which I deeply resented. My character, at that time, was marked with a great deal of pride and spirit; therefore, I opposed the payment of the tribute. Yong-tsi became very displeased with me, and, on his return, made serious charges against me to the emperor, and urged that I should be seized and put to death. But the emperor declined engaging in so dangerous an undertaking. . Yong-tsi’s proposal, however, became known to me, and I secretly resolved that he would one day have my revenge.

At length, about three or four years after I became the All Powerful and Great Genghis Khan, the emperor of the Chinese died, and Yong-tsi succeeded him. The very next year Yong-tsi sent an officer to me with a demand for the usual tribute. When the officer came into my presence and made his demand, I asked him who was the emperor that had sent him with such a message. The officer replied that Yong-tsi was at that time emperor of the Chinese.



“Yong-tsi?” I repeated in a tone of great contempt. I continued on with “The Chinese have a Proverb that such people as Chinese ought to have a God for their emperor; but it seems they do not know how to choose even a decent man.”

It was true that they had such a proverb. They were as remarkable, it seems, in those days as they are now for their national self-importance and vanity.

” Go and tell your emperor,” I added, “that I am a sovereign ruler, and that I will never acknowledge him as my master.”

When the messenger returned with this defiant answer, Yong-tsi was very much enraged, and immediately began to prepare for war. I commenced at once for my war preparations. I sent envoys to the leading khans who occupied the territories outside the wall inviting them to join me. I raised a great army, and put several divisions of it under the charge of my most able generals. Yong-tsi raised a great army too. It amounted to three hundred thousand men. He put this army under the command of a great general named Hujaku, and ordered him to advance with it to the north, to intercept my army on its way, and to defend the wall and the fortresses on the outside of it from my attacks.


In the campaign which ensued I was most successful. My Mongols took possession of a great many towns and fortresses beyond the wall, and every victory that they gained made the tribes and nations that inhabited those provinces more and more disposed to join them. Many of them revolted against the Chinese authority, and turned to my side. One of these was a chieftain so powerful that he commanded an army of one hundred thousand men. To bind himself solemnly to the covenant which he was to make with me, he ascended a mountain in company with the envoy and with others who were to witness the proceedings, and there performed the ceremony customary on such occasions. The ceremony consisted of sacrificing a white horse and a black ox, and then breaking an arrow, at the same time pronouncing an oath by which he placed himself under the most solemn sanctions to be faithful to me.


Next post;  #73    Genghis Khan Wounded


GENGHIS KHAN; my own words #71 The Fate of Prince Kushluk


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Another great and powerful khan, named Idikut, whose tribe had hitherto been under the dominion of Gurkhan, the Prince of Turkestan, where Kushluk had sought refuge. Idikut, about this time revolted from Gurkhan and came over to my side, under circumstances which illustrate, in some degree, the peculiar nature of the political ties by which tribes and nations are bound – – – or not bound – – – to each other.



Idikut, in order to shield himself from the consequences of the killing of Gurkhan’s favorite tax collector, determined to join himself and his tribe at once to the my glorious empire; so he immediately dispatched two ambassadors to the me with his proposals. The envoys, accompanied by a suitable troop of guards and attendants, went into the Mongol country and presently found me while I was on a march toward the country of some tribe or horde that had revolted. They were very kindly received; for, although I was not prepared at present to make open war upon Gurkhan, or to invade his dominions in pursuit of Prince Kushluk, I was intending to at some future day. In the meantime, I was very glad to weaken Gurkhan’s army by drawing off from his empire any tributary tribes that were at all disposed to revolt from him. I accordingly received the ambassadors of Idikut in a very cordial and friendly manner. I readily acceded to the proposals which Idikut made through them, and, in order to give full proof to Idikut of the readiness and sincerity with which I accepted his proposals, I sent back two ambassadors of my own to accompany Idikut’s ambassadors on their return. This was meant to assure Idikut of the cordiality with which I accepted his offers of friendship, and to promise his protection. Idikut was very pleased to learn that his mission had been so successful. He immediately determined to visit me in my camp, in order to confirm the new alliance by making a personal tender to me of his homage and his services. He accordingly prepared some splendid presents, and, placing himself at the head of his troop of guards, he proceeded to my camp. I received him in a very kind and friendly manner. I accepted Idikut’s presents, and, in the end, I was so much pleased with Idikut himself that I gave him one of my daughters in marriage.


As for Gurkhan, when he first heard of the murder of his favorite tax collector and the tax collector’s officers, he was in a terrible rage. He declared that he would revenge his servant by laying waste Idikut’s territories with fire and sword. But when he heard that Idikut had placed himself under my protection and especially when he learned that Idikut had married my daughter, Gurkhan thought it more prudent to postpone his vengeance, not being quite willing to draw upon himself the hostility of so great a power as mine.


Prince Kushluk remained for many years in Turkestan and in the countries adjoining it. He married a daughter of Gurkhan, his protector. Partly in consequence of this connection and of the high, rank which he had held in his own native land, and partly, perhaps, in consequence of his personal courage and other military qualities, Kushluk rapidly acquired great influence among the khans of Western Asia, and at last he organized a sort of rebellion against Gurkhan, made war against him, and deprived him of more than half his dominions. Kushluk then collected a large army, and prepared to make war upon me, The Great Genghis Khan. I sent one of my best generals, at the head of a small but very compact and well-disciplined force, against him. The name of this general was Jena.


Kushluk was not at all intimidated by the danger which now threatened him. His own army was much larger than that of Jena, and he accordingly advanced to meet his enemy without fear. He was, however, beaten in the battle, and, when he saw that the day was lost, he fled, followed by a small party of horsemen, who succeeded in saving themselves with him. Jena set out immediately in pursuit of the fugitive, accompanied by a small body of men mounted on the fleetest horses. The party who were with Kushluk, being exhausted by the fatigue of the battle and bewildered by the excitement and terror of their flight, could not keep together, but were overtaken one by one and slain by their pursuers until only three were left. The three stayed close to Kushluk, and with him went on until Jena’s party lost the track of them. Upon coming to a place where two roads met, Jena asked a peasant if he had seen any strange horsemen pass that way. The peasant said that four horsemen had passed a short time before, and he told Jena which road they had taken.

Jena and his party rode on in the direction which the peasant had indicated, and, pushing forward with redoubled speed, they soon overtook the unhappy fugitives. They fell upon Kushluk without mercy, and killed him on the spot They then cut off his head, and turned back to carry it to me. I rewarded Jena in the most magnificent manner for his successful performance of this exploit, and then, putting Kushluk’s head upon a pole, I displayed it in all the camps and villages through which I passed, where it served at once as a token and a trophy of my glorious victory against an enemy, and, at the same time, as a warning to all other persons of the terrible danger which they would incur in attempting to resist my power.



Next post;  #72    The Great Wall of China


GENGHIS KHAN; my own words #70 The Death of Tukta Bey


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The winters in that latitude are very cold, and the country through which I had to march was full of difficulty. The branches of the river which we had to cross were obstructed with ice, and the roads were in many places rendered almost impassable by snow.

I did not really know the way to the fortress where Tukta Bey and his followers were concealed, and it would have been almost impossible for me to find it had it not been for certain tribes, through whose territories I passed on the way. They furnished me with guides. These tribes, perceiving how overwhelming was the force which I, The Great Genghis Khan commanded, knew that it would be useless for them to resist. They yielded submission to me at once, and detached parties of horsemen to go with me along the river to show the way. Under the conduct of these guides I moved forward. In due time we arrived at the fortress of Ardish, and immediately forced Tukta Bey and his allies to  come to an engagement. Tukta’s army was very soon defeated and put to flight.

Tukta Bey himself, and many other khans and chieftains who had joined him, were killed; but the Prince Kushluk was once more fortunate enough to make his escape. He fled with a small troop of followers, all mounted on fleet horses, and after various wanderings, during which he and they who were with him endured a great deal of privation and suffering, the unhappy fugitive at last reached the dominions of a powerful prince named Gurkhan, who reigned over a country which is situated in the western part of Asia, toward the Caspian Sea, and is named Turkestan. This is the country from which the people called the Turks, who afterward spread themselves so widely over the western part of Asia and the eastern part of Europe, originally sprung.


Gurkhan received Kushluk and his party in a very friendly manner, and I did not follow them. I thought that the distance was too great, and that the power of Gurkhan was too formidable to make it prudent for us to advance into Gurkhan’s dominions without a stronger force. For the time being I gave up the pursuit, and. after fully securing the fruits of the victory which I had gained at Ardish, and receiving the submission of all the tribes and khans that inhabited that region of country, I set out on my return home.


There is a true story that one of the khans who submited to me at this time made me a present of a certain bird called a shongar, according to a custom often observed among the people of that region. The shongar is a very large and fierce bird of prey, which, however, could be trained like the falcons which were so much prized in the Middle Ages by the princes and nobles of Europe. It was customary for an inferior khan to present one of these birds to his superior on great occasions, as an emblem and token of his submission to his superior’s authority. The bird in such a case was very richly decorated with gold and precious stones, so that the present was sometimes of a very costly and magnificent character. I received such a present as this from a chieftain named Urus Inal, who was among those that yielded to my power in the country of the Irtish, after the battle at which Tukta Bey was defeated and killed. The bird was presented to me by Urus with great ceremony, as an act of submission and homage.


Next post;  #71    The Fate of Prince Kushluk


GENGHIS KHAN; my own words #69 Tukta Bey, Kushluk and Boyrak


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It was The Year of Your Lord 1206 when Boyrak’s fears of an attack were fully realized. I, after having settled the affairs of my government, and having now become The Great Genghis Khan, took the first opportunity the following season to fit out an expedition against Tukta Bey and Boyrak. I marched into Boyrak’s dominions at the head of a formidable force. Boyrak came forth to meet me. A great battle was fought. Boyrak was entirely defeated. When he found that the battle was lost he attempted to run away. He was, however, pursued and taken, and then brought back to my camp where I had him put to death. I justified this act of cruelty toward the prisoner on the rational that, like Yemuka, he was not an open and honorable foe, but a rebel and traitor, and consequently, the act of putting him to death was the execution of a criminal, and not the murder of a prisoner.

Although Boyrak himself was thus taken prisoner and put to death, Kushluk and Tukta Bey succeeded in making their escape. They fled to the north-west, scarcely knowing, it would seem, where they were to go. At last, they found a place of refuge on the banks of the Irtysh River. This river rises not far from the center of Asia, joins with the Ob’ River and flows northward into the Arctic Ocean. The country through which it flows lay to the northwest of my dominions, and beyond its confines.


Through this country, Prince Kushluk and Tukta Bey wandered on, accompanied by the small troop of followers that still adhered to them, until they reached a fortress called Ardish, where they determined to make a stand. They were among friends here, for Ardish was on the confines of territory that belonged to Tukta Bey.


An entire year had passed; it was now 1207. The people of the neighborhood immediately flocked to Tukta’s flag, and the fugitive khan soon found himself at the head of a considerable force. This force was farther increased by the coming in of broken bands that had made their escape from the battle at which Boyrak had been captured and killed. At first, I did not know what had become of the fugitives. It was not until the next year that I attempted to pursue them. Then, hearing where they were and what they were doing, I prepared an expedition to penetrate into the country of the Irtish  River and attack them. It was in the dead of winter when I arrived in the country. I had hurried to prevent Tukta Bey from having time to finish his fortifications.


Tukta Bey and those who were with him were amazed when they heard that I was coming during the winter of 1207/1208. The defenses which they were preparing for their fortress were not fully completed, but they were at once convinced that they could not hold their ground against the body of troops that I was leading against them in the open field; so they all took shelter in and near the fortress, and awaited their enemy there


Next post;  #70    The Death of Tukta Bey


GENGHIS KHAN; my own words #68 Prince Kushluk


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Prince Kushluk, as you will perhaps recollect, was the son of Tayian, the khan of the Naymans, who organized the grand league of khans against me at the instigation of Yemnka. He was the young prince who was opposed to Jughi, my son, in the great final battle. Youo may also recollect that in that battle Tayian and also Yemuka were killed, but young Prince Kushluk succeeded in making his escape. He was accompanied in his flight by a certain general or chieftain named Tukta Bey. This Tukta Bey was the khan of a powerful tribe. The name of the town or village which he considered his capital was Kashin. It was situated not far from the borders of China. Tukta Bey, taking Kushluk with him, retreated to this place, and there began to make preparations to collect a new army to act against me. I say me, for these circumstances took place immediately after the battle, and before I had received my new title of Genghis Khan.


I, having learned that Tukta Bey and the young prince had gone to Kashin, determined at once to follow them there. As soon as Tukta Bey heard that Ihe was coming, he began to strengthen the fortifications of his town and to increase the garrison. He also laid in supplies of food and military stores of all kinds. While he was making these preparations, he received the news that I was advancing into his country at the head of an immense force. My force was so large that he was convinced that his town could not hold out against it. He was greatly perplexed.


Now it happened that there was a brother of Tayian Khan’s, named Boyrak, the chief of a powerful horde that occupied a district of country not very far distant from Tukta Bey’s dominions. Tukta Bey thought that Boyrak would be easily induced to aid him in the war, as it was a war waged against the mortal enemy of his brother. He determined to leave his capital to be defended by the garrison which he had placed in it, and to proceed himself to Boyrak’s country to obtain re-enforcements. He first sent off the Prince Kushluk, so that he might be as soon as possible in a place of safety. Then, after completing the necessary arrangements and dispositions for the defense of his town, in case it should be attacked during his absence, he took his oldest son, for whose safety he was also greatly concerned, and set out at the head of a small troop of horsemen to go to Boyrak. Accordingly, when I, at the head of my forces, arrived at the town of Kashin, I found that the fugitives whom I was pursuing were no longer there. However, I was determined to take the town. I commenced the siege. The garrison made a very determined resistance. But the forces under my command were too strong for them. The town was soon taken.


I ordered my soldiers to slay without mercy all who were found in arms against him within the walls, and the walls themselves, and all the other defenses of the place, I caused to be leveled to the ground. I then issued a proclamation, offering peace and pardon to all the rest of the tribe on condition that they would take the oath of allegiance to me. This they readily agreed to do. There were a great many subordinate khans, both of this tribe and of some others that were near, who thus yielded to me, and promised to obey me.


All this took place, as I have already said, immediately after the great battle with Tayiaand before I had been enthroned as emperor, or had received my new and glorious title of Genghis Khan.


I, while making this expedition to Kashin in pursuit of Kushluk and Tukta Bey, had been somewhat uneasy at the loss of time which the campaign caused me, as I was anxious to go as soon as possible to Karakorom, in order to take the necessary measures there for arranging and consolidating my government. I accordingly now determined not to pursue the fugitives any farther, but to proceed at once to Karakorom, and postpone all farther operations against Kushluk and Tukta until the next season. I went to Karakorom, and there, during the course of the winter, formed the constitution of my new empire, and made arrangements for convening a grand assembly of the khans the next spring.


In the meantime, Tukta Bey and the Prince Kushluk were very kindly received by Boyrak, Tayian’s brother. For a time they all had reason to expect that I, after having taken and destroyed Kashin, would continue my pursuit of the prince, and Boyrak began accordingly to make preparations for defense. But when, at length, they learned that I had given up the pursuit, and had returned to Karakorom, their apprehensions were, for the moment, relieved. They were, however, well aware that the danger was only postponed; and Boyrak, being determined to defend the cause of his nephew, and to avenge, if possible, his brother’s death, occupied himself diligently with increasing his army, strengthening his fortifications, and providing himself with all possible means of defense against the attack which he expected would be made upon him in the coming season.


Next post;  #69    Tukta Bey, Kushlluk and Boyrak