EXTREMADURA: HOME TO HERDSMAN, RULERS AND ANARCHY (PART 8 – The Aftasids in Badajoz)

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The period of internal anarchy, which was initiated by religio/politco factors and class factions, left al Andalus deeply divided (1008 – 1030). Even more confusing to the populace were the seemingly temporary Muslim-Muslim alliances and the equally temporary Muslim-Christian alliances.

Aftasid

 

Out of this confusion emerged one taifa (Party Kingdom) controlled by the Aftas family (Aftasids). The Aftasid Dynasty selected Badajoz as their base, most likely due to the grand fortress that Marwan al Jilliqi had built in the ninth-century. The Aftasid taifa was based on a governor ship arrangement under the central government. This allowed the Aftasid taifa to extend far up the Guadiana River to Campo de Calatrana. The population of Badajoz was approximately 20,000 people at that time. The Aftas leaders were Abdallah (1022 – 1045 A.D.), Muhammad (1045 – 1068 A.D.), Umar and Yaha (1068 A.D.), and Umar alone (1069 – 1094 A.D.).

Tomorrow: Fernando I

Woven Design

EXTREMADURA: HOME TO HERDSMAN, RULERS AND ANARCHY (PART 7 – The Start of the Party Kingdoms)

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The Umayyads

Umayyad

 

and the Berber family of the Hammudids

 

Hammudids

 

controlled the caliphate until 1030 A.D.. The quick changes (9 rulers in 22 years) of weak Caliphs ended the central control of al Andalus thereby setting up the conditions for the “Party Kingdom” era.

Badajoz, Spain was the central command for one of these party kingdoms (taifas).

 

Tomorrow: The Aftasids in Badajoz

Woven Design

EXTREMADURA: HOME TO HERDSMAN, RULERS AND ANARCHY (PART 6 – Ibn Abi Amir)

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A clever and apparently devious man, Ibn Ali Amir, who emerged from an Arabic family near Algeciras, was in Cordova for the purpose of study prior to 976 A.D.. That was the year when the last powerful ruler of the Umayyads (Al Hakam) died. Ibn Ali Amir had been hired by Al Hakam’s daughter (Princess Subh) as the business manager for her son’s affairs. Her son, Hishan, was eleven years old at the time. Al Hakam strongly favored this grandson (Hishan) and had meticulously planned for Hishan to take control of the Umayyad dynasty.

Ibn Abi Amir, who had his own ambitions, wasted Hisham’s moral and morale by ensuring that Hisham was allowed any indulgence he wished; especially those of the flesh. Ibn Ali Amir then cleverly cut his way through each member of the power structure, one by one, killing some and imprisoning others, until he alone controlled the Cordova Caliphate.

Ibn Abi Amir

Naming himself “al Mansur” (victorious one by God) his rule was a fearful dictatorship. After al Mansur’s death and the death of his son “al Musaffa,” (the victor), the once-boy Caliph Hisham was returned to power under the close direction of the Umayyad family.

 

Tomorrow: The Start of the Party Kingdoms

Woven Design

EXTREMADURA: HOME TO HERDSMAN, RULERS AND ANARCHY (PART 5 – Ibn Marwan al Jilliqi)

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“The Marches” (upper, middle and lower) were the names given to the frontiers under Muslim control. The lower Marche was the Extremadura with its center in Merida, which was and remains, located on the Guadiana River. Ibn Marwan al Jilliqi was able to hold this region independent from the central government.

Jilliqi

Ibn Marwan al Jilliqi was a Muslim of Spanish decent; a “Muwallad.” He had, in the year 868, totally embarrassed the central government. He had just completed a retaliatory defeat of the emir’s army. He then captured the chamberlain. This humiliation was multiplied when al Jilliqi gave the chamberlain to the Christian, Alfonso III of Asturias, who in turn accepted a ransom of 100,000 dinars from the central government for the chamberlain’s return. Ibn Marwan al Jilliqi enjoyed the popular support of both muwallad’s and mozarab’s (Christians living under Islamic control). Ibn Marwan al Jilliqi and his sons held independent control of this area until 930 A.D.

However, before his death (889 A.D.) Ibn Marwan al Jilliqi built the fortress (Alcazaba) on the present sight of Badajoz on the Guadiana; thirty six miles west of Merida.

Jilliqi Castle in Badajoz

The Alcazaba was oval in shape and constructed of adobe. The Almohads, in the twelfth-century, rebuilt and expanded it with stone. The Alcazaba was further enhanced with Christian towers topped by crown shaped viewpoints.

Tomorrow: Ibn Abi Amir

Woven Design

EXTREMADURA: HOME TO HERDSMAN, RULERS AND ANARCHY (PART 4 – Junds, Fiefdoms and Aldeas)

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The invading Berbers were north African herdsmen who settled in the hills and mountains of the Extremadura. This created conflict with the indigenous and Roman herdsmen who remained in the area. Feudalism in these northern areas appeared to have advantages and was practiced by both Christians and Muslims. Typical were the fiefs of the Berber soldiers (Junds) who, when settled on a fief, were referred to as “jundis.”

Jundi Herdsman

The use of fiefdoms may have been the combined result of climate, geography (elevation), and the remoteness from larger population centers. The larger population centers, around Castile and Catalonia for example, had remote hamlet (aldea) populations of 12 to 60 people and 20 to 90 people, respectively. However, the Extremadura aldeas had much smaller populations averaging between 10 and 20 people.

 
Tomorrow: Ibn Marwan al Jilliqi

Woven Design

EXTREMADURA: HOME TO HERDSMAN, RULERS AND ANARCHY (PART 3 – Vandals, Visigoths and Berbers)

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The Vandals

 

The Vandals invasion of Iberia, coupled with Rome’s own problems in their eastern reaches, forced Rome to invite the Visigoths into Iberia for protection against the Vandals. With Rome in a weakened state, the Visigoths assumed control of Iberia. However, they were little more than maintenance managers, and in most cases, even failed to maintain the infrastructure that Rome had built; rarely improving it.

 

Kingdom of the Visigoths

 

The years 709 to 712 A.D. saw three incursions from northern Africa into the Iberian peninsula. The first incursion in 709 A.D. was by Julius Yulyan of Cueta, governor/wali of northern Africa. This incursion was the result of the treacherous rape of Yulyan’s daughter Florinda by the newly appointed Visigothic King Roderick.

The second incursion, made by Berbers in 710 A.D. originated as a reconnaissance; ordered by wali Musa ibn Nasayr but carried out by his client Tariq ibn Ziyad. This continued reconnaissance, in 711 A.D., was expanded by 5,000 men. The foray resulted in the rapid defeat of the Visigothic central administration. Toledo was captured and Cordova surrendered to 700 horsemen.

 

Tariq ibn Ziyad

Sensing the vulnerability of the Visigoths wali Musa ibn Nasayr, personally in 712 A.D., led a military invasion of Iberia with 18,000 men. Musa followed up in 713 A.D. with the capture of Seville and laying siege to the last Visigoth stronghold of Merida, Extremadura region.

Tomorrow: Junds, Fiefdoms and Aldeas

Woven Design

EXTREMADURA: HOME TO HERDSMAN, RULERS AND ANARCHY (PART 2 – Variathus)

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Many empires in the past had been interested in Iberia; and many more would be in the future. The Second Punic War (218 – 201 B.C.) would place Rome in control of Iberia.

The Roman Engineers constructed bridges, aqueducts and theaters in Merida and Badajoz. These two locations in Extremadura would allow them to control central Iberia.

3765840-Roman_Theatre_Merida_Extremadura_Spain_Merida    Roman bridge over river in Badajoz              Aquaduct ruins Merida

Rome quickly realized the importance of the Extremadura, and the importance of Merida as a focal point. This resulted in the Roman military and construction legions placing unexpected pressure on the native Extremadurans. Food, materials and labor not gained by negotiation were often obtained through force or treachery.

An indigenous shepherd, uneducated but brilliant, was successful in assembling a substantive military force whose goal was to drive the Romans from the Extremadura. He was named Variathus.

Variathus’ initial plan failed and resulted in the death of 9,000 Extremadurans and 20,000 sold as slaves. Variathus, although one of those who the Romans sold into slavery, escaped and rebuilt his military.

Variathus

He gained Cadiz by siege and defeated several Roman military units. This eventually led to Variathus’ control of the majority of central Iberia.

Rome, stinging from these defeats, dispatched a large military unit from Carthage. Variathus sent three envoys to meet the Roman leader of this unit. Promises by the Romans, of gold and power, swayed Variathus’ three envoys. Treacherously the envoys returned to Variathus’ camp, invaded his tent, and assassinated him.

Rome was, once again, in command of Iberia.

Tomorrow: Vandals, Visigoths and Berbers

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EXTREMADURA: HOME TO HERDSMAN, RULERS AND ANARCHY (PART 1 – In The Beginning)

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Spain with Extremadura WIKIPEDIA

Spain with Extremadura WIKIPEDIA

The term “Extremadura” is credited with two sources. The first is an apparent error in geography or translation: “The extreme reaches of the Duero River in Iberia.” More recent research suggests that the name originated from “estremad” meaning “separated” and “ura” which implies the practice of herding animals in a year-round pasturing location; a Roman practice.

Indigenous Iberians had long been venturing inland as the coastal areas became more densely populated. Typical paths of settlement would progress up river valleys such as the Guadiana River basin.

 Guadiana River Basin

At that time (400 B.C.) Carthaginians were in control of southern Iberia and many, like Hannibal, had taken Iberian wives. Hannibal controlled southern Iberia and northward as far as present day Merida.

 Hannibal

Tomorrow: “VARIATHUS”

Woven Design

Wally’s Little Compendium of “TO CAST”

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Origin of CAST

Middle English, from Old Norse kasta; akin to Old Norse “kǫs” heap

First Known Use: 13th century

or late 20th century, example;

 

Tonto asking the Lone Ranger why he is so happy.

 

“Holy Smoke-signal Kemosabe; why you make heap big smile all the time?

 

 LR and Tonto

 

NO – – – but seriously folks – – –

 

This is what “cast” means

 

To throw in a forceful way

 

a fishing line, hook, etc. into the water by using a fishing pole

(this is the absolutely best way to enjoy a cast)

or cast a net by hand

Casting a net

castanet (cast a chestnut) by fingers

                           Castanets

 

in the direction of someone or something

 

dice in the game of craps

to the opposite end

of the table

 

a glance at a beautiful female

her legs or buttocks

(sorry – – – my bad)

 

 

To put forth

 

a warm glow as a campfire

(especially if I have a

Southern Comfort Manhattan

in my hand)

 

 

light on the subject

as a book or essay

(You want light on a subject?

Read Frederik Nietzsche.

He lights up the grey matter.)

 

 

To place as if by throwing

 

doubt on their reliability

(I promise not to say anything

about the current administration.)

 

 

To deposit

 

a ballot in hopes of reform

(See above.

Ooops – – – I broke my promise already)

 

 

To accidentally throw off or away

 

a horse losing his shoe

(Or my sanity or morals)

 

 

To get rid of by nature

 

all restraint

(such as singles leaving a bar

You wouldn’t happen to have

the address for that bar

would you?)

 

 

 

To set apart

 

segregated seating for smokers

 

a system where heritage overrides merit

(Oh – – – wait a minute

I think that is spelled caste; eg

the system of dividing society

into hereditary classes)

 

 

 

To shed

 

a raincoat must shed water

 

human nature sometimes causes bloodshed

 

pouring forth in drops – – – tears

 

enlightenment – – – sheds some light on the subject

 

 

 

To give off, discharge, or expel from the body of a plant or animal

 

 

eject, slough off, or lose

as part of the

normal processes of life

 

a snake shedding its skin

(see downsizing)

 

a dog shedding hair

(see sneezing

or vacuuming)

 

 

a deciduous tree sheds its leaves

(see “Fall”

Friends; are you over 60?

People  over 60 fall all the time.

Order our “ICAN”TGETUP” system

for only $500 and monthly payments

of a mere $40 for the remainder of your life.)

 

To discharge

 

usually gradually

(so as to be unnoticeable

such as information

from our government)

 

especially as part of a

pathological process

(this is redundant;

our government

is pathological)

 

shed a virus

 

a pustule

(sorry about

that image)

 

 

To rid oneself of temporarily or permanently as superfluous or unwanted

 

the company laid off 100 employees

 

she shed her inhibitions

and then 

she dumped her childhood sweetheart

 

(and I have

never recovered

from the experience)

 

 

To pour out

 

She spilled the beans

 

AGAIN?

 

 

To become dispersed  

 

Scatter brained

 

(see above)

“She cast off all inhibitions”

 

Are you sure you don’t

have that address?

 

 

 

To cast off some natural covering as fur, skin or emotion

 

the dog is still shedding

(see above)

 

dispensing with all humanity

(see bloodshed above)

 

I dumped him; what a loser!

 

“Cast off Matey – – – yo-ho-ho and a bottle of rum”

 

 

To molt

 

shed hair, feathers, shell, horns, or an outer layer periodically

 

 

As in any invertebrate of the phylum

Arthropoda,

having a segmented body,

jointed limbs,

and usually a chitinous shell

that undergoes moltings,

including the insects,

spiders and other arachnids,

crustaceans, and myriapods.

 

Snakes molt as they grow,

shedding the old skin and

growing a larger new skin;

sometimes turning into CEOs.

 

Crabs molt their shell

as they grows larger;

sometimes turning into

bitter spouses.

 

 

To bring forth

Especially new ideas

 

Allow me to cast

a pregnant thought

into the mix

 

or newsworthy information

 

bee-bee-beep-bee- beep

“Attention all listeners

and ships at sea;

an explosion has

created devastation,

the wind blew up

the river.

 

 

To give birth to

 

Prematurely or unnaturally

 

He cast his seed upon the ground

(Onan knew that the offspring would not be his;

so when he went in to his brother’s wife,

he wasted his seed on the ground

in order not to give offspring

to his brother.)

Holy Crap – – – that’s really weird.

 

To throw to the ground

 

suplex in wrestling

 

 Suplex

 

He cast his opponent upon the ground

(not to be confused with the seed)

 

To build by throwing up earth

 

They cast mud into the Tower of Babel

(NO! They did not build the tower

and then throw mud into it;

they cast mud into bricks

and then constructed

the tower with them)

 

SHEESH! WHAT GROUP OF READERS HAVE I CAST UNTO MYSELF?

 

 

To perform arithmetical operations

 

by means of astrology

 

Casting an astrological chart

 

An astrological chart or,

more specifically,

a natal chart,

is a symbolic representation

of the position of the planets,

the sun, and the moon

at the moment

of a person’s birth.

 

Each planet occupies

a particular zodiac sign

at a given moment.

It is the interpretation

of this placement

that provides

astrologers with insight

into a person’s

personality and behavior.

 

Because an astrological chart

is based on facts (?)

—-the actual positions in the sky

(relative to earth)

of heavenly bodies

at a certain time—-

it is more of an astronomical

than an astrological endeavor.

 

 

To decide

She decided to cast her lot with him

 

BIG MISTAKE!

 

To intend

I didn’t intend to cast

any dispersions

on this post

 

Oh yes you did.

 

 

To dispose or arrange into parts or into a suitable form or order

 

He separated them into different lots by date

 

FIFO

First In First Out

FILO

First In Last Out

LIFO

Last In First Out

LILO

Last In Last Out

FISH

Last In Still Here

WGAC

Who Gives A Crap

(better known as)

RS

Random Selection

 

 

To assign the parts of a dramatic production to actors

                                                                                          

cast a movie

 

“Frankly my dear,

I don’t give a damn.”

 

To assign an actor to a role or part

 

He was cast in the leading role

 

(see Frankly my dear; above)

 

To give a shape to a substance by pouring

in liquid or plastic form

into a mold and letting it harden without pressure

 

cast steel

 

Sporks are not formed

by this process

 

Sporks are formed

when the cow

jumped over

the moon

and the fork

ran away

with the spoon

to make little

baby sporks.

 

turn

 

cast the scale slightly

to cause to move around

an axis or a center

 make rotate or revolve; 

turn a potter’s wheel.

 

He cast some pottery

 

 

To make a knot or stitch by looping or catching up

 

twist

unite by winding 

Robling cast strands of wire

together to form

the cables

for the

Brooklyn Bridge

 

she made a warp of yarn

 

To from a curve that has developed

in something originally flat or straight 

 

a warped door

This damn thing won’t shut right

 

a mental aberration

 

If you have read

this post this far

you must be

a bit warped

To bear fruit : 

 

give or render as fitting

rightfully owed

or required

as a pregnant idea

 

To give up possession of a claim or demand

 

He cast his last breath

- – – and so he died

 

The court has ruled;

YOU LOST!

 

To surrender or relinquish to

the physical control

of another

hand over possession of

 

I cast myself unto you,

my love

 

 

To give oneself up

 

to an inclination, temptation,

or habit

 

He cast himself

to the devil

whiskey

 

To relinquish one’s possession of

a position of advantage

or point of superiority

I yield the floor

to the prosecutor

 

 

To perform addition

 

Casting a Summation

 

Define the sum

between the upper

and lower limits

 Summation between limits

 

 

To range over land in search of a trail

 

hunting dogs or trackers

 

They cast for a scent

 

To make immobile or perpetual

a hard covering that is put on an

arm, leg, etc., so that

a broken bone can heal

 

Mommy,

mommy,

mommy,

mommy,

mommy;

when can I take

this damn thing off?

 

 

A plaster mask was cast

 

His image was held

for all to see;

in perpetuity

 

 

AND NOW ON A LIGHTER NOTE; The rhyme

 

Thomas Nast

had a blast

making politicians

all aghast.

 

The hot blast

wide and vast

of their rhetoric

extinguished at last.

 

Pictured their past

as big iconoclast

but boots of leather

had turned to bast.

 

Tied to their past

like pirates to the mast

Tom cartooned them

Forever cast.

 

AND NOW A WORD FROM OUR SPONSOR!

Do you have an itchy burning sensation between your toes?

Does your chewing gum lose its flavor on the bedpost overnight?

Does your husband come home with scabies from a “business trip?”

Are the children getting tired from cracking ice for Grandpa’s piles?

(Oh, wait a minute. Piles is a synonumb for heap, and numb is the goal.)

WELL THEN – – – WHAT YOU NEED IS OUR “SELF HELP CD.”

A sample reading can be seen below.

 

 

 

 

If that sample interests you please send

one szlotney and

five box tops from

“Who Cares Gummy Bears?” (8 ounce size)

to ten good friends.

 

WHO CARES GUMMY BEARS: THEY STICK IN YOUR TEETH

AND NOT TO YOUR FINGERS.”

 

 Say Goodnight Wally

 

LIGHTNING STRIKES TWICE (In Upstate New York)

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This is another true story.

It is another sad story.

It is all but gone now!

This photo is of another great leader – – – like George F. Johnson was.

 

Thomas Watson Sr.

 

THOMAS WATSON SENIOR

He borrowed and had this built during the depression.

IBM Endicott Lab

THE ENDICOTT LABORATORY

Following are a few comments from a Washington Post News Article:

Washington Post extract

All but gone. Less than 500 employees remain in the birthplace of IBM; Endicott, NY

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